Pinus nigra, Pinus strobus, Pinus cembra (Swiss pine), Taxus baccata (European Yew)
From Flore forestière illustrée du centre de l’Europe (Illustrated forest flora of central Europe), by C. de Kirwan, Paris, 1872.
Natural pigments called carotenoids, which produce yellow, brown, and orange hues, are always present in leaves. During the growing (and photosynthesis) season they are masked by green chlorophyll. In autumn, no longer disguised by chlorophyll, we see the true colors, or the natural pigments, of the leaves.